Saturday, December 14, 2013

The Empire:Mother of Harlots -3

The Empire:Mother of Harlots -3

The Empire-Bible Prophecy and the European Union-Revived Roman Empire


The Mother of Harlots


Revelation, Chapter 17, describes , who represents false religion. Babylon’s political and religious aspects bring down God’s judgment. While political Babylon’s judgment occurs just prior to the battle at Armageddon and results from the Antichrist’s reign, religious Babylon’s annihilation comes through the Antichrist and his federation of kings. 


The Antichrist abolishes religion, and persecutes its followers for not worshipping him alone. In Dwight Pentecost’s Things To Come: A Study of Bible Eschatology, Pentecost quotes Scofield, who confirms: “Two ‘Babylons’ are to be distinguished in the Revelation…Ecclesiastical Babylon is ‘the great whore’(Rev. 17:1), and is destroyed by political Babylon (Rev. 17:15-18), that the beast may be the alone object of worship (II Thess. 2:3, 4; Rev. 13:15).”[23]

As one reviews history, one realizes the identity of the woman in Revelation Chapter 17. She sits upon many waters, and is arrayed in purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold, precious stones, and pearls. Her hand holds a golden cup full of abominations and the filthiness of her fornication. Upon her head one sees words written in capital letters: “MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.” Drunk with the blood of the saints (martyrs) she sits upon seven hills (Rev. 17:4-5, 9).

Harlotry, in the Bible, equals idolatry. When Israel worshipped other gods, God compared the nation to a harlot. The book of Hosea elaborates on this precept by its description of an adulterous wife and a faithful husband, symbolic of the unfaithfulness of Israel to God through idolatry.

The bride of Christ is pure and holy, and she embraces truth. The harlot symbolizes all false teaching. She leads individuals away from the true God, to herself. The mother of harlots encompasses all doctrine, beliefs, practices, and ideology that diametrically opposes the truth of Jesus Christ.

Immorality, sorcery, and idolatry imprinted Babylonian society. The nation was famous throughout the ancient world for astronomy. They were astrologers first and foremost. Sorcerers and necromancers were more popular than physicians. Divination and the interpretation of dreams were common practice. Hepatoscopy, a favorite Babylonian method of divination, involved examining the livers of animals. Ezekiel confirms these Babylonian practices in declaring: “For the king of Babylon stands at the parting of the road, at the fork of the two roads, to use divination: he shakes the arrows, he consults the images, he looks at the liver” (Ezek.21:21). Heavily superstitious; the Babylonians were idolatrous, with innumerable gods. Historian Will Durant numbered their gods around 65,000.

The Babylonians worshipped one woman in particular. This woman is Ishtar, whom the Babylonians worshipped for being the mother of God. Her titles include “The Virgin,” “The Holy Virgin,” and “The Virgin Mother.” Ishtar represented the divinity of bounteous motherhood. Those who worshiped her considered her a goddess of war as well as love. She stood over prostitutes as well as mothers. She called herself a caring courtesan. Babylonians represented Ishtar sometimes as a bearded bisexual deity, and sometimes as a nude female offering her breasts to suck. Though Babylonians referred to her as “The Virgin,” this merely meant that her illicit lovers were free from all bonds of wedlock.

Revelation 18:7 states: “She says in her heart, I sit as queen, and am no widow, and will not see sorrow.” Ancient Babylonian prayers referred to her as “Queen of all cities, Queen of Heaven and Earth,…Ishtar is great! Ishtar is Queen! My lady is exalted; my Lady is Queen.” Revelation 17:16 names her “the whore. In later centuries, among Babylon’s enemies, the upper classes called her the “whore of Babylon.”[24]

False Religion

False religion led the Israelites from the true God to its teachings. Babylon’s religious symbols and doctrines bore many similarities to those taught in the Scriptures, in part because the Jews lived within Babylonia and Jewish doctrine influenced their myths. Ancient Jews embraced the Babylonian religion, and God rebuked the Jews for following its practices. During Ahab’s reign in Israel’s northern kingdom, Jezebel, the Phoenician princess, instituted Baal worship and murdered the prophets of God. Baal was the Sun-god, the Life-Giving One, equivalent to Tammuz. Baal worship was part of Babylonian society, and caused the Babylonian invasion of Israel. In Jeremiah 44:17-20, the Jews acknowledged to Jeremiah that they burned incense, and gave drink offerings to the Queen of Heaven. This passage mentions the “Queen of Heaven” four times. Four in the Bible represents the number of man, and man invented religion. From Babylon this mystery-religion spread to all the surrounding nations, and the symbols remained similar, including the image of the Queen of Heaven with a baby in her arms. Ashtoreth and Tammuz became Isis and Horus in Egypt, Aphrodite and Eros in Greece, Venus and Cupid in Italy, and bore many other names.[25]

The Babylonian religion merged with Christianity during the reign of the Roman emperor Constantine. These combined beliefs became part of the Catholic Church. Historians Will and Ariel Durant recorded that, “Babylonian altars frequently sacrificed a lamb, as the substitute for man who gave it in exchange for his life… priests carried from sanctuary to sanctuary the image of Mardak, and performed the sacred drama of his death and resurrection. They anointed the idols with sweet-scented oils, burned incense before them, and clothed them with rich vestments.”[26]

The woman in Revelation 17 sits dressed as a harlot leading to herself the hearts of men. Revelation 17:2 tells us that the world’s kings commit fornication with the Great Whore. The fornication committed is not merely physical, but spiritual adultery. As men deny the true Church of Jesus Christ by embracing the harlot's false teaching, they become corrupt in unholy union.


The Whore of Babylon's Judgment



In the end times, the Great Whore sits upon the Beast-joined to his Kingdom—and later the Antichrist and his federation of kings destroy her. They carry her off, leaving her naked and burned. Her presence indicates political influence. Her destruction by the Beast reveals that she exercises limited power over the Antichrist and his federation of kings. Though present in the kingdom’s early stages, she does not remain long after the entity becomes powerful. Her destruction occurs when the Antichrist claims to be god and demands worship of him alone. His ideology diametrically opposes her precepts. All religions threaten his imposed laws.

Revelation 17 and Isaiah 47 describe the Great Whore's judgment by God. In verse 6, the Scriptures describe her as "drunk with the blood of the saints and with the blood of the martyrs." Verse 7 describes the Beast "carrying her." Initially the Bible pictures the woman sitting on the Beast—joined to his kingdom—which reveals that she has influence over the Beast. Later they carry her, indicating that she grows into a burden, and in verses 16 and 17 the Bible tells us: "And the ten horns which you saw on he beast, these will hate the harlot, make her desolate and naked, eat her flesh and burn her with fire.

The Whore's judgment comes from God. Making her desolate and naked, eating her flesh, and burning her with fire indicate that violence will be committed against her—such as spoiling the treasures of her churches, taking possession of her land, burning her Bibles, religious literature, statues, religious paraphernalia, and buildings, and persecuting her followers so that the Antichrist alone can be the sole object of worship. While she initially has influence over the Beast's kingdom, she does not remain long after his government becomes powerful. Her destruction occurs when the Antichrist claims to be a god and demands worship of him alone. All religions then become a threat to him, and he sets out to remove them from the face of the earth.

In the past century many dictatorships arose and each of them eliminated freedom of religion and speech as the state and the dictator act as the objects of one’s sole dedication. The Antichrist will limit these freedoms on a worldwide scale and the nations which do not willingly go along he will conquer.

Several Bible scholars teach that “the Whore” represents a one-world religion, which operates along with a one-world government. These writers cite the ecumenical movement that embraced many religions and supported left wing revolutionary groups as the forecasted one world religion. The movement endorsed liberation theology, which taught that Jesus was the first Marxist. Liberation theology used the Scripture to prove that the Bible provided the basis for Communism. The Catholic Church, one of the largest churches in the world, refused to join the Ecumenical Church.

Some expositors teach that the Antichrist heads the one world religion which launches the False Prophet. This author holds the view that the Whore of Babylon and the Beast operate separately and the Whore’s location, religious teachings and influence over the area of the Beast intertwines them. Revelation 17:7 states that the beast “carries” the woman. The verse uses bastazo, the Greek word for carries which according to Strong’s Lexicon means: 1) to take up with the hands, 2) to take up in order to carry or bear, to put upon one's self (something) to be carried, a) to bear what is burdensome, 3) to bear, to carry, a) to carry on one's person, b) to sustain, i.e. uphold, support, 4) to bear away, carry off.

This woman clearly becomes a burden to these kings and the Scripture tells us “these shall hate the Whore.” Verse 17 explains that they give their allegiance to the Beast who deifies himself and establishes his own religion (Dan. 11:39). The Revelation chapter specifies that the woman sits on the Beast because she shares the same location. Her teachings influence the leaders and people of the land.

Religion and The EU’s Formation


The Bible depicts the Whore sitting on the Beast, signifying that she plays a principal role. Religion does play a part in European politics. Its precepts provided the ideology that prompted the European Union’s formation. Religion has a voice in European politics through the Christian Democratic and Socialist political parties, which elect statesmen who share their beliefs. The leaders of these parties become the political representatives of their churches. During the French Revolution, as Democracy spread through Europe, so did Christian political parties. Most of these parties were Catholic. The Christian Democratic political movement would defend the Church’s ultimate interests. This political party assumed responsibility for the social services that the Church was no longer in a position to provide. The Whore in part sits on the Beast through the Christian political parties that are responsible for the European Union’s formation and evolution. While Christian doctrine founded America, the Whore’s precepts provide the ideological basis for the formation of the final world power’s government.

Catholic ideals influenced the European Union’s founders. During World War II, French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, and Alcide de Gasperi, each man exemplary Catholics, had been hunted by Nazis and Fascists. De Gasperi—the founder of the Christian Democratic Party in Italy, and a militant Catholic activist and anti-fascist—became premier of Italy in 1945. He believed that the party man remained linked with his spiritual mother, the Church. His theological convictions influenced his public and private actions.[27]

German Chancellor Konrad Adenaeur helped found the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in Germany in 1945. He “typified a Catholic Germany in contrast to a pagan Germany.” In 1949, the Frenchman Robert Schuman became France’s foreign minister. He had wanted to become a priest, but gave the idea up to serve his faith in other ways. For him, politics was a priestly duty. All three men were politicians with high ideals. Pope Pius XII, who held strong political beliefs, sought to aid the cause of peace with the help of fellow Catholics. He and the leaders of the Christian Democratic parties formulated a plan. For the first time, leaders of the Catholic Church headed the French, Italian, and German governments. The Christian Democratic political parties aroused hopes of a new Christianity. The movement arranged religious gatherings where they planned political action. Vatican Europe became part of the political scene.

Europe, devastated by two world wars, directly felt the threat of two atheistic ideologies—communism and fascism. The European political leaders believed that the only way to have peace among nations would be if the nations aligned themselves in economic and political pursuits. Schuman proposed that France and Germany create a Coal and Steel Community, encompassing the two nation’s production. Konrad Adenauer welcomed the idea as a way to prevent war among these two nations. They invited other nations to join as well.

• On May 9, 1950, the Schuman Declaration led to the first European Union.

• On April 18, 1951, European leaders signed the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty in Paris.

The entire Franco-German production of coal and steel resided under a higher authority. Its decisions bound France, Germany, and other member countries. A Council represented the interests of the Member States. The common assembly later became the Court of Justice. In their view, this foundation of a European federation was vital to the preservation of peace. The union would prevent war. The French and German heavy industries urgently needed rebuilding. The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) would spur growth. This treaty marked the birth of the European Union. Ratified by the governments of France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, the ECSC began functioning in 1952. It represented a revolutionary approach to international relations, as the first international organization with a federal governing body.[28] This led to the drafting of the EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community) and Common Market Treaties. ___________________________________________________________

• On March 25, 1957, European founders signed the EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community) and the Common Market Treaties in Rome on one of its seven hills—Capitoline Hill.

________________________________________________________________

Religion influenced the European Union’s formation through political leaders who embraced its precepts. These men acted as key players in the Union’s formation. They held the highest positions in its newly established organizations. Robert Schuman became the first president of the European Commission in 1958. Alcide de Gasperi held the presidential post of the ECSC Common Assembly in 1954. Monsignor Pierre Raffin, the Bishop of Metz, in Schuman’s native Lorraine, launched a campaign for his beatification; the first step on the way to sainthood. Some Christian Democratic members of the European Parliament backed the initiative.[29] Of Jacques Delors, the former EU Commission president, Stanley Hoffman, who writes on European Union affairs, wrote: “A former official of the French labor union inspired by progressive Catholic thought, he exemplifies the synthesis of Christian democracy and socialism on which the Community was built.”[30] One’s religious convictions greatly affect one’s political beliefs.

In the summer of 1998, the United Methodist News Service issued a press release stating that European churches were preparing to play a major role in the continued development of the European Union. The European Ecumenical Commission for Church and Society merged with the Conference of European Churches into the Commission on Church and Society. Members of this new commission included Methodists, Lutherans, Baptists, Anglicans, and the Orthodox. The Conference of European Churches comprised 123 different church bodies, and also cooperated with the Roman Catholic Church. Keith Clements, the conference’s general secretary, commented: “For the first time in centuries, there’s the possibility of creating a Europe without barriers, the challenge to the churches is whether they themselves can contribute to the unity.”[31]

The Role of the Catholic Church and the European Union

Catholic thought provides the ideological basis for a united Europe, and presents itself as a political point of reference. The Church along with the unification of Europe, is simultaneously attempting to unify and strengthen itself. It aims to become the spiritual backbone of the evolving European Union. According to See Change, a publication for Catholic organizations, which reports on how the hierarchy of the Catholic Church involves itself in public policy debates:

It seems that the bishops want the European Union to become an extension of the church, by confirming that European civilization, in the words of the pope, “emerged because the seed of Christianity was planted deep in Europe’s soil.” (Zenit, “Popes, proposals for European Charter of human rights, “September 24, 2000.)

Few democracies in Europe mention God in their constitutions but this did not deter the bishops from demanding that the European Union should do so.[32]

On January 13, 2003, Pope John Paul II gave his State of the World address to representatives of 177 countries in Vatican City. Concerning the European Union he stated: “The Holy See and all the Christian Churches have urged those drawing up the future Constitutional Treaty of the European Union to include a reference to Churches and religious institutions.” He added: “ A Europe which disavowed its past, which denied the fact of religion, and which had no spiritual dimension would be extremely impoverished in the face of the ambitious project which calls upon all its energies: constructing a Europe for all.” [33]

Within two weeks of the Pope’s address, United Press International reported that the Pope was “lobbying European governments to officially recognize the European Union’s Christian roots,” and they reported on the Catholic Church’s efforts to work a strong Christian reference into the preamble of the EU Constitution. The Vatican argues that “Christianity’s fundamental role in shaping European culture should be acknowledged in what is destined to become the European Union’s key document.” Convention delegates are reluctant to involve religion in the new constitution, for fear that it might create additional problems for the Union.[34]

Dr. Ian Paisley of the Institute of Protestant Studies, whose web site (http://www.ianpaisley.org/about.asp) promotes, defends, and maintains Bible Protestantism in Europe, exposes the papacy as the Beast of Revelation and offers some enlightening facts. His article “The Vacant Seat Number 666 in the European Union Parliament,” records:

The prophetic significance of the European Union has been revealed as the saga unfolds. First, the sign which it chose as its symbol was the woman riding the Beast. This comes from a prophecy in Revelation 17. The depiction of the harlot woman was reproduced on the centenary stamp of the European Union, in a huge painting in the Parliament’s new

building in Brussels, and by a huge sculpture outside the new EU Council of Ministers Office in Brussels. The new European coinage, the euro, bears the same insignia. The Tower of Babel has been used on the posters emanating from Europe – a truly suggestive prophetic sign.

Now, a massive Crystal Palace tower (officially called the Tower Building) houses the Fifth Parliament of Europe…The seats… there are 679 of them – but wait for it! While these seats are allocated to Members, one seat remains unallocated and unoccupied. The number of that seat is 666.

The web site also exposes the Catholic Church’s immorality and its political role within the European Union, and alerts its readers to EU legislation that infringes on the freedoms of European citizens.[35]

In November of 2008, the Catholic Church demanded that the EU enshrine Sunday observance into law. In October of 2009, the Catholic News Service reported Pope Benedict XVI asserting:

If European unity is based only on geography and economics, it cannot succeed in promoting the common good of all Europe's citizens and in helping the rest of the world. The recognition of the dignity of the human person and the obligation to work for the common good -- values Christianity fostered on the continent -- are what inspired the movement toward European unity and are the only guarantee of its success.
The European Union did not bring those values to the 27 member countries, but rather it is these shared values that have given birth to and were like a gravitational force that drew the countries together and inspired them to form a union. When the church recalls the Christian roots of Europe, it is not seeking a special status for itself, instead, it is calling Europeans to remember that the values that brought peace to the continent and freedom and dignity to its people must be allowed to continue nourishing it…Europe will not truly be herself if she cannot keep the originality that made her great.[36]

In the Pope’s own words we see the image of the woman sitting on the Beast and her influence is clearly evident. So much so that contributors have devoted a page to Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia entitled “European Union- Holy See Relations,” and another entry titled, “The European Union and the Catholic Church.” [37]

A few years back there was a web site dedicated to exposing the meaning of the EU flag. The site called itself “The EU Flag’s True Symbolism Revealed.” The writer presented the idea that the symbol derived from the Virgin Mary, and is a tribute to her. The EU’s flag, a circle of twelve stars on a blue background, depicts Judeo-Christian symbolism. The twelve stars symbolize the twelve tribes of Israel, the twelve apostles, along with the twelve months in a year, and the Greek myth that speaks of the twelve labors Hercules performed to gain immortality.

The European Union bases many of its symbols on pagan myths; the very name Europe is from the Greek mythological Europa, a Phoenician noble woman kidnapped by Zeus who came to her as a bull and took her to the island of Crete where she became queen. Ian Paisley pointed out the similarity of Revelation Chapter 17 depiction of the harlot riding the beast and the EU’s woman seated on the bull which are outside several of the European Union's institutions, as well as on the Greek euro coin.

Europa's name appeared on postage stamps commemorating the Council of Europe, issued in 1956. Furthermore, the dome of the European Parliament's Paul-Henri Spaak building contains a large mosaic by Aligi Sassu portraying the abduction of Europa with other elements of Greek mythology. Europa also serves as the national personification for Europe.[38]

Social Babylon

God condemned all three aspects of Babylonian society—political, religious, and social. Besides being a hub for international trade, and religiously devoted to the Queen of Heaven, Babylonian society was immortal, steeped in superstition, divination, idolatry, and sexual promiscuity. The morals of Babylon shocked Alexander the Great, himself a drunkard. Temple prostitutes practiced sacred prostitution in Babylon until abolished by Constantine. Babylonians engaged in considerable premarital experience. Poor men prostituted their daughters for money. The indulgence in fleshly pleasures abounded.

Babylonian men acted effeminate. They wore their hair as long as the women did, dyed and curled it, perfumed their flesh, rouged their cheeks, and adorned themselves with necklaces, bangles, earrings, and pendants.[39] This also describes many of today’s rock groups, transvestites, transsexuals, and homosexual drag queens.

In Europe today, materialism and superstition abound. Italian housewives practice forms of divination such as divining oil to read a migraine headache, or determining the sex of a baby by reading the movements of a needle over a pregnant woman’s womb.

French society is one of the best educated in the world. Yet, in 1990, ten million French citizens consulted clairvoyants and astrologers. They spent three times as much on faith healers as they spent on family doctors. Almost half of the French population believes in faith healing. One in four believes in clairvoyants, and one in three believes in astrology. Many believe in the power of faith healers, astrologers, and palmists.[40] In France, as many as sixty corporations use an organization called Divinitel, which employs astrology and tarot card reading for the recruitment of executives.[41]

In European society, extramarital affairs are so common that spouses expect each other to have lovers. Europeans view Americans’ disdain for infidelity as being out of touch with the facts of life. Germany has legalized prostitution. Hard rock, punk, and new wave all originated in Europe, and their dress and music have influenced groups in the US and around the world.

The Green parties in Europe have revived a form of idolatry that originated with the Greeks: earth worship. To the Greeks, she was a goddess; earth as mother. Green policies for the preservation of the earth began in West Germany, spread through Europe and then into America. Ironically, the earth that these groups take such pains to preserve for future generations God will destroy. Mother Earth cannot save anyone from the coming Tribulation.

Political Babylon’s Foretold Destruction

The book of Revelation foretells the destruction of Babylon. The Scriptures refer to Babylon as a “she.” International trade characterizes her. God cites her as a deceiver of nations, and the means by which the merchants and great men of the earth trade (Revelation 18:7,23). The European Union’s political ideology derives from the Whore’s teachings. The act of uniting Europe to prevent war among its nations finds its roots in religious conviction. Nations will not wage war against one another while united in economic alliance. If nations align with one another they will eliminate war and achieve peace. The deception exists in the premise that worldwide democracy will ensure peace, justice, and human rights. Revelation 18:11-15 lists twenty-seven exported goods combined with categories of products. The 28th phrase lists “souls of men.” Verse 23 concludes with: “For by thy sorceries were all the nations deceived.” The Scriptures teach that man is sinful, and because of his nature there will be no peace on earth until the second coming of Jesus Christ.

During Nebuchadnezzar’s reign, Jeremiah foretold Babylon’s judgment in the latter days. Just as Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Jerusalem and oppressed the Jews (Jeremiah 50:30), the Antichrist will do the same. When the Antichrist treads down the nations, the nations become angry. Jeremiah 51:7 states: Babylon was a golden cup in the Lord’s hand that made all the earth drunk: The nations drank her wine; therefore the nations are deranged.” Revelation 17:4 tells us that abominations and filthiness of fornication fill the gold cup in her hand. The kings of the earth commit fornication with her and become drunk with the wine of her fornication. Revelation 18:3 adds that “the merchants of the earth have become rich through the abundance of her luxury.” The rest of the chapter predicts her destruction. The remaining passages refer to her as the hub for trade for the earth’s merchants. Upon her destruction, these merchants mourn, for they can no longer trade with her.

After the Antichrist wreaks his havoc upon the earth, armies will go to fight against the European Union. Jeremiah 50:41 states: “Behold, a people shall come from the North, and a great nation and many kings shall be raised up from the ends of the earth.” In the Bible, North always refers to the area of the Soviet Union. “A great nation” may be the US. “At the noise of the taking of Babylon the earth trembles, and the cry is heard among the nations” (Jeremiah 50:46).

God destroys political Babylon i.e. the final world empire. As Hitler was the spark for World War II, when he invaded and conquered nations in Europe; the Antichrist’s swift and fast conquest will prompt powerful nations to wage war against him. Daniel 11:40 states that “at the time of the end, the King of the South shall attack him: and the King of the North shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, horsemen, and with many ships.”

When armies invade his land, the Antichrist enters into the attacking countries and defeats them. He conquers Egypt and North Africa. Hearing reports from the North and East, he goes forth with great fury to destroy. He ends up at a place prepared for him in Jerusalem (Daniel 11:42-45). Israel and the Middle East become part of Antichrist’s conquered territory, according him the exact borders of the Roman Empire at the time of Christ. Jeremiah 4:6-7 tells us: “Set up the standard toward Zion: take refuge! Do not delay!: For I will bring disaster from the North, and great destruction. The lion has come up from his thicket, and the destroyer of the nations is on his way; he has gone forth from his place to make your land desolate; your cities will be laid waste without inhabitant.”


The Antichrist’s armies, the Soviet Union, the Eastern nations, and the US surround Jerusalem. The river Euphrates dries up, and prepares the way for the kings of the East. God draws the world’s armies to the place called, in the Hebrew tongue, Armageddon (Rev. 16:12-16).


NOTES

CHAPTER 3

Op. Cit. Pentecost, p. 368.

  1. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization: I Our Oriental Heritage, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963, pp. 234-236, 244, 256, 258.

  2. Op. Cit. Pentecost, pp. 365-367.

  3. Op. Cit. Will and Ariel Durant, p. 240.

  4. Elisa Carrillo, Alcide de Gasperi: The Long Apprenticeship, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1965, pp. 49, 149.

  5. Merry and Serge Bromverger, Jean Monnet and the United States of Europe, New York: Coward McCann, 1969, pp. 84-89, 92. See also, Jean Monnet, “A Grand Design for Europe,” European Documentation, Periodical 5/1988, Luxembourg: Office of Official Publications.

  6. “A New Holy Roman Empire,” Economist, 4 September 1993.

  7. Op. Cit. Stanley Hoffman, p. 32.

  8. “Churches Preparing for Major Role in New European Union,” United Methodist News Service, June 1998.

  9. The “See Change” Broadside #1, 27 March 2001, http://www.seechange.org/media/Broadside%20(March%20%27%202001).htm

  10. State of the World, According to John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps Accredited to the Vatican, 13 January 2003, Zenit News Agency, http://www.zenit.org/english/visualizza.phtml?sid=29883,

  11. United Press International, “Pope Seeks EU Recognition of Christian Roots,” Washington Times, 24 January 2003, http://www.washingtontimes.com/world/20030124-41210892.htm,

  12. Ian Paisley, M.P., M.E.P., “The Vacant Seat Number 666 in the European Parliament,” 22 July 1999, http://www.ianpaisley.org/article.asp?ArtKey=666

  13. The EU Must Keep Sunday, Says Catholic Church, the Trumpet.com November 18.2008 http://www.thetrumpet.com, “Pope says Europe needs Christian values to prosper, help others,” Cindy Wooden, Catholic News Service, October 19, 2009, http://www.catholicnews.com

  14. Wikipedia contributors, “European Union-Holy See relations,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia,http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Europen_Unioin_%E2%80%93_Holy_See-relations&oldid=292976117(accessed November 12, 2009, see also

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:The_European_Union_and_the_Catholic_Church

  1. Europe is in love with symbols but the reality is much more dull, Damian Chalmers“ The Independent November 19, 2009 http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/, Israel & The Nations-Europe, The Madonna, The Anthem, The Tower of Babel, The Woman Riding A Beast, www.godspromisedland.com, Wikipedia contributors, “Symbols of Europe,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Symbols_of_Europe&oldid=324684669 (accessed December 30, 2009), Wikipedia contributors, “Ode to Joy,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ode-to_Joy&oldid=326051031, (accessed December 30, 2009)

  2. Op. Cit. Will and Ariel Durant, p.222.

  3. Ian Harding, “France’s Lost Souls Take the Mystic Path,” European, 22-24 February, 1991.

  4. “Divining Executive Talents,” Europe: Magazine of the European Communities, October 1990, pp. 36-37.